Monday, August 31, 2009

Jon Gosselin Host The Wet Republic Pool Party in Las Vegas

Jon Gosselin hosts the Wet Republic pool party in Las Vegas

Aug 31 2009
Jon Gosselin of 'Jon & Kate Plus 8' hosts the Wet Republic pool party at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas. Pictured: Jon Gosselin Picture by: Splash News

What we see here is a self pacifying lip lick. Whenever we feel uncomfortable we sometimes, subconsciously do little things that makes us feel just a little bit more secure.

Some people use sunglasses to keep people from being too close to them because they block others from noticing their eyes; others wear them simply wanting to appear cool. Jon only left them on for a couple of pictures so we cannot read too much into their presence here...◦

An Article You Should Check Out

Why Gen-Y Johnny Can't Read Nonverbal Cues
An emphasis on social networking puts younger people at a face-to-face disadvantage.

Sunday, August 30, 2009

OJ Simpson Sentencing Hearing Video Pleading his Case at a Sentencing Hearing for His Nevada Robbery Conviction


Ashton Kutcher and Jennifer Garner About to Kiss on the Set

Ashton Kutcher and Jennifer Garner kissing on the set of Valentines Day at the canals in Venice, Los Angeles

Aug 29 2009
Ashton Kutcher and Jennifer Garner kissing on the set of Valentine's Day at the canals in Venice, Los Angeles Pictured: Ashton Kutcher and Jennifer Garner Picture by: Clint Brewer / TC / Splash News

In movies in every scene there needs to be a certain amount of change, or information that moves the story along... and here we see two people who are in defensive positions that are not "open" to each other. Ashton has his arms folder in front of himself, and Jennifer is holding her hands together and her face in slightly angled away.

The only sign of a connection is Ashton's hips are angled towards her, which is an extension of the body language rule, 'where the feet are pointed, is the direction they want to go= or have interest in.'

There are several inches separating them; I wouldn't think this would end up in a kiss?!?! It will be interesting to see what the movie is about and what has occurred up to this point that they would look more like friends than a couple... and end up kissing...

Ashton Kutcher and Jennifer Garner kissing on the set of Valentines Day at the canals in Venice, Los Angeles

An Article You Should Check Out

The Truth About Lying
We are a culture of liars. Maybe we'd all benefit from brushing up on our skills.

A special thanks to Chelsea for sending me the link.

Saturday, August 29, 2009

Phillip Garrido who Kidnapped Jaycee Lee Dugard Nearly Two Decades Ago Phone Interview

"Back in 1991... why did you select this girl?"

"I'm so sorry. Let me help you. Let me sit down and do this
correctly. I have no desire to hold back these things. In fact, when this
takes place, you're going to be really surprised with what happened. It's a
powerful, heart-warming story."

"What situation do you
think you're in right now?"

"I'm in a very serious situation. What it is, I can't speak to you about
it. I have to wait.. As time goes on - you'll get pieces of the story in a
powerful manner."

"What have you been
doing? What's kept you busy?"

"What's kept me busy the last several years. I've completely turned my
life around. You'll find a most powerful story coming from the witness... the
victim... If you just take this a step at a time, you'll fall over backwards.
And in the end you'll find the most powerful heart-warming story, revealing of
something that needs to be understood. That's as far as I can go."

Aerial view of house where Jaycee Dugard is believed to have been kept for 18 years

I have seen "I'm so sorry." said by Phillip Garrido taken completely out of context in headlines across the county. When he states this he is saying it to the reporter, and he is sorry for not being able to talk about it at this time.

"I have no desire to hold back these things." We have to ask ourselves why he did not answer the question. Why is he holding back now?

He never states that he did not kidnap her; Instead he implies he did it by calling her 'the witness... the victim."

He does not state her name, instead distances himself from her.

At some level he understands what he did to her, it is uncommon for the suspect to call the victim a victim or witness. You would be more likely to hear the pronouns 'she' or 'her' when he is speaking about her.

He is very aware of his legal situation, evidence by the slip of the tongue when he does say "witness." It is also clear that he knows this because he is aware to not speak about the details.

He distances himself from the criminal acts and instead wants to concentrate on the story.. the last two years where he changed to the point where it will be, "the most powerful heart-warming story."

The problem right now, is he is open to speaking and will do so as long as he can talk about the last two years, but reporters will concentrate on the "bad" while he wants to concentrate on the "good" and he will turn very quickly and stop speaking.

Does he believes what has happened in the last two years- where he devoted his life to God- is going to make up for the other 16 years. From reading his blog it is clear he tried to put forth he had delusions of "greatness" and that God speaks through him. Speaking in tongues is common among Pentecostalism and the Charismatic movement, but it does not appear he was affiliated with either of these churches. Speaking in tongues is an altered state much like hypnosis, where there is a certain amount of focus and clarity that gets attributed to God's word. This alone should not be interrupted as a defense for diminished capacity. Here is NOT a man who committed terrible crimes and turned to God to atone for his sins and guilt; instead he does not believe he has done wrong, but recognizes others will, and is attempting to lessen the evil under the guise of his relationship with God. This blog has been manufactured in an attempt to appear crazy- His blog speaks of mind control and Schizophrenia. He had several other blogs that appear to have no content. It is unclear why he would have spent so much time to produce documents, to say he has this gift but does not say what/why/how it has changed his life?!?! If he would have such a gift and passion for God there would be a great deal more posts in the blog, remember this is a man who ran a printing business- he dealt with words on a daily basis. This is part of his manipulation, this was a vital part of his relationship with his victims and his wife.

For a person to commit these crimes he depersonified her. In many ways she was no different from a family pet, and it appears she was treated as humanely.

He was abusive to his wife, Nancy Garrido (in all cases where a wife allows this to go happen, and even helps as is the case here) it is to alleviate the abuse she herself suffers from the sexual sadist. She must accept responsibility for her actions, she is not a victim, and she also depersonified the child and willingly allowed unspeakable evils to occur.

Kidnapped girl

Jaycee Lee Dugard is a victim, no question. Some in the media question why she did not leave. He fathered two children with her, the first when Jaycee was about 14. Those children, both girls now 11 and 15, also were kept hidden away in the backyard compound. Jaycee likely became pregnant as quickly as she was physically able. With the addition of the child, he would have more control over her and would be able to threaten her with harm to her child. Mentally she would be a fragile as they come, at eleven she was placed in very violent adult situations without the understanding or skills necessary to deal with her situation- She'd quickly shut down and would have exhibited the same symptoms of traumatic stress.

He'd have little regard for her safety, other than to maintain her health to an acceptable level so he could live out his sick fantasies. He'd regard this in the same way he'd have to maintain his car. He'd skillfully give and grant her "treats" to solidify his control over her. He'd want to present himself as a benevolent leader in complete control of her, and his home.

He was caught, when officers said he was acting suspiciously toward the two children. A neighbor said he described the girls as "very shy" and said the older one was "very clingy to her father." Unfortunately the older daughter was was likely abused, and since she had none of the normal socialization that normal children get she would have a difficult time knowing what was appropriate touch. This is probably what made the officier suspicious. Since Jaycee was 11 when she was kidnapped it is likely that the younger daughter was becoming a target of his advances and this could have been the reason for Jaycee decided to walk into the Bay area police station.

In every situation where a person is held against their will for extended periods of time there is a great deal of control and threats used by the kidnapper to maintain order, and an unhealthy and unnatural bond is developed between the kidnapper and victim. This is a further sign of the extent of victimization that has occurred. It should not be misunderstood.

Child abducted 18 years ago turns up alive

I hope and pray that the victims can heal...◦

Lie to Me Season one DVD Released this Week!


Lie To Me

Season One Of The Hit Series Arrives On Blu-ray Disc And DVD
August 25 From Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment

“ unusually meaty, thoughtful and thought-provoking crime drama...
dramatic and mesmerizing”
- Tom Shales, Washington Post

CENTURY CITY, CA – The average person tells three lies in ten minutes of conversation. From writer Samuel Baum (“The Evidence”) and the executive producers of “24” and “Arrested Development” comes “Lie To Me,” a compelling drama series inspired by the scientific discoveries of Dr. Paul Ekman, a real-life specialist who can read clues embedded in the human face, body and voice to expose both truth and lies in criminal investigations. On Blu-ray Disc and DVD, the first season debuts August 25 from Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment.

“Easily one of the season’s best new shows” (Washington Post), “Lie To Me” stars OscarÒ nominee* Tim Roth (“The Incredible Hulk”) as Dr. Cal Lightman, the world’s leading deception expert, and his company The Lightman Group, who study facial expressions and involuntary body language to discover if someone is lying and why. Assisting federal law enforcement, government agencies and local police with their most difficult cases, the agency consists of Dr. Gillian Foster (Kelli Williams, “The Practice”), a gifted psychologist; Eli Loker (Brendan Hines, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles), Lightman’s professional partner and lead researcher; and Ria Torres (Monica Raymund, “Law & Order Special Victims Unit”), the newest member of the agency with an innate ability to read people. In the groundbreaking first season of the hit show, the drama unfolds as the team is faced with numerous cases to unravel including a student fleeing a murder scene, a college basketball player accused of accepting a bribe from his university, a NASA test pilot accused of intentionally crashing a multimillion dollar aircraft, and much more!

The “Lie To Me” Blu-ray and DVD sets include 13 episodes, featurettes, deleted scenes and a gag reel, and will be sold for a suggested retail price of $59.99 U.S. / $69.99 Canada and $49.98 U.S. / $59.98 Canada, respectively. Prebook date is July 15.

*1996: Best Actor in a Supporting Role, Rob Roy

In this powerful and engaging new drama from Imagine Television, the producers of 24, Tim Roth stars as Dr. Cal Lightman, a deception expert whose uncanny ability to read facial expressions and body language makes him a virtual human polygraph. Joined by psychologist Dr. Gillian Foster, Lightman tackles compelling cases of sabotage, scandal and murder, always uncovering the one thing that matters most—the truth.

Blu-ray Disc Specs:
“Lie To Me” Season One Blu-ray Disc is presented in HD (1.78:1 aspect ratio) with English 5.1 DTS HD-MA and Spanish and French subtitles. Individual disc content is as follows:

Disc One
· Episodes:
o Pilot
o Moral Waiver
o A Perfect Score
o Love Always
o Unchained

Disc Two
· Episodes:
o Do No Harm
o The Best Policy
o Depraved Heart
o Life is Priceless
o Better Half

Disc Three
· Episodes:
o Undercover
o Blinded
o Sacrifice
· Bonus Features
o The Truth About Lies
o Deleted Scenes

DVD Specs:
“Lie To Me” Season One will be presented in SD (1.78:1 aspect ratio) with English 5.1 DOLBY DIGITAL with Spanish, French and Portuguese subtitles. Individual disc content is as follows:

Disc One
· Episodes:
o Pilot
o Moral Waiver
o A Perfect Score
o Love Always

Disc Two
· Episodes:
o Unchained
o Do No Harm
o The Best Policy
o Depraved Heart

Disc Three
· Episodes:
o Life is Priceless
o Better Half
o Undercover
o Blinded

Disc Four
· Episodes
o Sacrifice
· Bonus Features
o The Lightman Group Lie Detection Tutorials
o Play ALL
o Intro
o Anger
o Contempt
o Disgust
o Fear
o Happiness
o Sad
o Surprise

“Lie To Me” Season One
Street Date: August 25, 2009
Order Date: July 15, 2009
Pricing: $59.99 U.S. / $69.99 Canada (Blu-ray Disc)
$49.98 U.S. / $59.98 Canada (DVD)
Catalog Numbers: 2260931 (Blu-ray Disc)
2259759 (DVD)
Feature Run Time: 605 minutes
MPAA Rating: NR
Closed Captioned: Yes


Help support this blog by ordering it from like I did:


Friday, August 28, 2009

Lennie James on Lie to Me

Comic-Con The Prisoner Panel

Jericho’s Lennie James has snagged one of this fall’s most sought-after roles: Tim Roth’s Lie to Me nemesis, Ray Marsh.

The character, who will be introduced in this season’s fifth episode, is described as a charming Brit who ran scams with Lightman way back when and who is now on the FBI and Scotland Yard watch lists. Ray once took the fall for Lightman and spent time in prison as a result. Now, after a 20-year estrangement, Ray is back to collect what he believes he is owed.◦

Author Robert Feldman on The Liar in Your Life

Psychology professor Robert Feldman, one of the world's leading authorities on deception, offers insights into how and why we lie.◦

Thursday, August 27, 2009

Subtle Skills for Building Rapport

Using Neuro-Linguistic Programming in the Interview Room


Colleagues Talking

Mark Hamilton, a seasoned detective, slowly opens the door to the interview room. The witness to the drive-by shooting sits leaning forward in a chair with her head in her hands. Normally, Mark bellows out his introduction to establish immediate control, but not this time. He enters the room without speaking, pulls a chair close to the witness, leans forward, and, in a barely audible voice, slowly begins, “I’m Detective Mark Hamilton....”

Detective Hamilton is using techniques from NeuroLinguistic Programming, a communication model with a name he might not even recognize. Yet, his years of interviewing have taught him the techniques. To establish rapport with this witness, Detective Hamilton knows that he needs to match her nonverbal behavior, or kinesics, by sitting down and leaning forward. When the witness begins to talk, Detective Hamilton listens carefully to her words and intentionally uses similar language. He also pays close attention to how she talks and matches her paralanguage (speech rate, volume, and pitch). In so doing, Detective Hamilton builds rapport with the witness and, hence, increases his chances of gathering pertinent information during the interview.

Detective Hamilton and other experienced investigators recognize the crucial role that rapport plays in an interview. Derived from the French verb rapporter meaning “to bring back,” the English word rapport refers to a relationship or communication characterized by harmony.1 With this in mind, the need for rapport applies to all interviews, but especially to those involving a victim or witness who has experienced physical or psychological abuse. The interviewer’s task is similar to that of the clinical psychologist, who must initially develop a personal bond with his client before intimate feelings are shared.2 Thus, investigators can enhance their rapport-building skills by examining some practical recommendations derived from the behavior modification technique known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming.


In the early 1970s, John Grinder, an assistant professor of linguistics at the University of Cali-fornia in Santa Cruz, and Richard Bandler, a student of psychology, identified patterns used by successful therapists. They packaged them in a way that could be passed on to others through a model now known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP.3

Neuro-Linguistic Programming embraces three simple concepts. First, the neuro part of NLP recognizes the fundamental idea that all human behavior originates from neurological processes, which include seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and feeling. In essence, people experience the world through their senses. Second, they communicate their experiences verbally, through language;4 therefore, the linguistic part of NLP refers to this use of language to communicate thoughts. Finally, the programming aspect of NLP recognizes that individuals choose to organize their ideas and actions to produce results. Each person also decides how to organize these ideas in a specific manner.5

The NLP founders theorize that people think differently and that these differences correspond to individual programming or processing systems. People use their senses outwardly to perceive the world and inwardly to “re-present” this experience to themselves. In NLP, representational systems denote ways people take in, store, and code information in their minds.6 These systems pertain to the principal human senses—seeing (visual), hearing (auditory), and feeling (kinesthetic). To a lesser degree, they involve tasting (gustatory) and smelling (olfactory). People constantly see, hear, and feel whatever transpires around them. When individuals relate these experiences to others, they mentally access the sights, sounds, or feelings associated with these experiences and communicate them through their predominant representational system.7


Enhancing communication and, hence, building rapport represents the most applicable aspect of NLP to investigators. The ability to communicate effectively and build rapport stands as one of the major contributors to a police officer’s success in dealing with the public.8 In an interview setting, effective communication involves the interviewer’s skill in establishing rapport through specific actions and words, thereby building trust and encouraging the interviewee to provide information.

Others besides successful law enforcement interviewers have found NLP techniques helpful in rapport building. For example, some medical hypnotists use the concept of “matching” with highly resistant clients.9 By simply conforming their nonverbal behavior to that of each client, by using language from the client’s preferred representational system (visual, auditory, or kinesthetic), and by matching the client’s volume, tone, and rate of speech (paralanguage), they often can overcome the client’s reluctance to communicate.

When interviewers intentionally align themselves with a witness or suspect through these matching or mirroring techniques, the interviewee is more inclined to respond to the interviewer and subsequently provide information. As one researcher points out, “people like people who are like themselves.”10 Once interviewers establish rapport, barriers disappear, trust grows, and an exchange of information follows. To achieve these results, interviewers should match or “mirror” the interviewee’s kinesics, language, and paralanguage.

Building Rapport by Matching Kinesics

Matching another person’s body language or kinesics probably is the easiest and most obvious technique. Kinesic behavior typically includes gestures, posture, and movements of the body, such as the hands, arms, feet, and legs.11 However, a difference exists between mimicry and matching. Interviewers should match another person’s body language with subtlety and caution; otherwise, the person easily could become offended. People who have developed rapport tend to match each other in posture and gestures. For example, individuals conversing together often adopt the same posture. Like partners in a dance, they respond and mirror each other’s movements with movements of their own, engaging in mutual responsive actions.12

Detective Hamilton employs the kinesics aspect of NLP in his interview. When he enters the interview room, he immediately notices the witness’ posture and the position of her hands. He notes that she is leaning forward with her head down. Her posture and the position of her head speak volumes.

"Once interviewers establish rapport, barriers disappear, trust grows, and an exchange of information follows."

As Detective Hamilton introduces himself, he pulls his chair close to the witness and, just like her, leans forward in his chair with his hands in front of him. As the witness begins to open up and speak about what she has seen, her non-verbal behavior gradually follows suit, as she opens herself up by sitting back. Eventually, as her trust in Detective Hamilton grows, she feels comfortable enough to relax. She realigns her posture by sitting up and facing Detective Hamilton. Through each succeeding change in her body language, Detective Hamilton matches her behavior, thereby lending credence to the belief that the deeper the rapport has been built between two people, the closer the matching of body language.

Building Rapport by Matching Language

Because people use language to communicate thoughts, the words they choose reflect the way they think. When relating experiences, an individual uses the visual, auditory, or kinesthetic representational system to identify these experiences and communicate them to others. For example, a person whose predominant representational system is visual will say phrases, such as “I see what you mean,” “that looks good to me,” “we see eye to eye,” or “I get the picture.” On the other hand, a person whose preference is auditory will use language, such as “something tells me...,” “that rings a bell,” “we’re on the same wave length,” or “that sounds okay to me.” Finally, a person who is kinesthetic or “feeling” oriented will make statements, such as “I’ll get in touch with you,” “how does that grab you?,” “you don’t have to get pushy,” or “how do you think I feel?”13

Successful investigators listen closely to the choice of words witnesses and suspects use. Then, they conform their language to match the interviewee, using similar visual, auditory, or kinesthetic phrases.

When Detective Hamilton’s drive-by shooting witness finally begins to talk, she describes her situation with phrases, such as “tremendous pressure,” “I feel like I’m going to pieces,” and “I can’t come to grips with what’s happening.” The detective responds to the witness’ account by matching her words. When she speaks of the “tremendous pressure,” he explains ways to relieve the “pressure.” He continues to use kinesthetic phrases, such as “take this load off your shoulders,” to communicate in her preferred representational system.

Because individuals process information in different ways, through distinct representational systems, the investigator often acquires valuable insight into the interviewee’s personal preference by paying close attention to the interviewee’s eye movements. According to NLP, eye movements, referred to as “eye-accessing cues,”14 reflect the manner in which an individual processes data. Therefore, the eyes move in specified directions, depending upon the person’s preferred mode of thinking. The founders of NLP concluded that eye movements reflect whether the person has a visual preference (thinks in terms of pictures), an auditory preference (“hears” sounds), or a kinesthetic preference (feels or experiences emotion) to process information.15

Typically, individuals move their eyes up at an angle as they remember a picture. Some people look directly to the side, which indicates that they are using the auditory mode to recall something that they probably heard before. Finally, individuals who look down at an angle appeal to kinesthetic sensations as they recollect what they felt or experienced.16

If an investigator observes that a witness consistently looks up at an angle, particularly when responding to questions that require recall, the interviewer can conclude, with a measurable degree of confidence, that the person is “seeing” a picture while remembering information. In NLP terms, this individual’s preferred representational system is visual. The investigator can facilitate the witness’ recollection of events by encouraging this visual recall through such phrases as “how did it look to you?” or “show me what you mean.” If the witness looks to the side when asked a question concerning what the person saw, the investigator can encourage the witness to remember by using questions designed to stimulate auditory recall, such as “tell me what you heard” or “how did it sound to you?” Finally, if the witness looks down at an angle when asked a question by the investigator, this could indicate that the person has a kinesthetic preference. Therefore, the investigator can choose phrases that underscore the witness’ feelings or emotions, such as “how did all of this feel to you?” or “can you get a handle on what took place?” By closely monitoring the movements of a person’s eyes and aligning questions in accordance with the interviewee’s observed preferences, investigators can build rapport, thereby enhancing communication between themselves and the people they interview. While NLP practitioners cite a direct neurological connection between eye movements and representational systems,17 other researchers recognize the need for additional empirical studies.18 Currently, investigators use interviewees’ eye movements as another possible indicator of their preferred manner of communicating.

Building Rapport by Matching Paralanguage

Matching another person’s speech patterns, or paralanguage, constitutes the final, and perhaps most effective, way to establish rapport. Paralanguage involves how a person says something or the rate, volume, and pitch of a person’s speech. One researcher goes so far as to say that matching the other person’s voice tone or tempo is the best way to establish rapport in the business world.19 What may hold true in the business realm applies in the interview setting as well. Individuals can speak fast or slow, with or without pauses. They can talk in a loud or soft volume and in a high or low pitch. However, most people are unaware of their own speech rate or vocal tones. In fact, investigators do not have to match a person’s voice exactly, just close enough to encourage that individual to feel understood.20

In the interview setting, slowing the rate of speech to correspond with the pace of a halting witness allows for recall and communication at that person’s pace. By the same token, if a witness speaks with more volume and at a quick rate, the investigator should try to match the person’s animated and expressive manner of speech. By listening carefully and paying close attention to how people speak, investigators can, in NLP terms, get “in sync” with people by matching their paralanguage.

Experienced investigators continually employ this technique, usually without even thinking about the mechanics or the process involved. Detective Hamilton also uses this aspect of NLP in his interview.

The drive-by shooting witness speaks slowly, as if searching for the right words. Detective Hamilton slows the rate of his speech, giving ample time for the witness to get her point across without feeling rushed. He lowers his voice to match her soft volume and refrains from the urge to interrupt her. As the witness becomes more excitable, speeding up her speech rate and increasing her volume, Detective Hamilton increases his rate and volume as he attempts to mirror her. In so doing, he demonstrates to the witness that he is interested in her as an individual, and this allows her to communicate what she experienced in a way that is comfortable for her.


Detective Mark Hamilton’s witness begins to feel support and understanding from the interviewer, who continues to match her kinesics, language, and paralanguage. When he sees her consistently looking down to her right, he realizes that she may be processing information on the kinesthetic level and encourages her to talk about her feelings. Slowly, she begins to trust Detective Hamilton.

Unbeknown to the witness, Detective Hamilton had been matching her in specified ways until she finally felt secure enough to provide full details of the drive-by shooter and his vehicle. As a result, the witness’ emotional need was met and, from Detective Hamilton’s perspective, the interview was a success.

Successful investigators listen "closely to the choice of words witnesses and suspects use."

This scenario illustrates the importance of carefully observing how witnesses and suspects communicate through nonverbal, verbal, and vocal means. Neuro-Linguistic Programming is not a new concept nor used rarely. In fact, most successful interviewers employ some variation of it to gain rapport. However, by being conscious of the process and the benefits associated with NLP, interviewers can use these techniques to their advantage. By matching interviewees’ nonverbal behavior, the manner in which they say something, and even their choice of words, interviewers can increase rapport and enhance communication. As a result, the potential for gaining crucial information needed to help resolve investigations improves significantly.



1 Genie Z. Laborde, Influencing with Integrity (Palo Alto, CA: Syntony Publishing, 1987), 27.

2 Ronald P. Fisher and Edward R.

Geiselman, Memory-Enhancing Techniques for Investigative Interviewing, (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, 1992), 22.

3 John O’Connor and John Seymour, Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming (London, England: Harper Collins Publishers, 1990), 2.

4 Ibid., 3.

5 Ibid., 3.

6 Ibid., 26.

7 Richard Bandler and John Grinder, Frogs Into Princes (Moab, UT: Real People Press, 1979), 5.

8 P.B. Kincade, “Are You Both Talking the Same Language?” Journal of California Law Enforcement 20: 81.

9 Ibid., 19.

10 Jerry Richardson, The Magic of Rapport, How You Can Gain Personal Power in Any Situation (Cupertine, CA: Meta Publications, 1987), 21.

11 Judith A. Hall and Mark L. Knapp, Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1992), 14.

12 Supra note 3, 19.

13 Supra note 7, 83.

14 Supra note 7, 35.

15 Supra note 7, 25.

16 Supra note 7, 25.

17 Supra note 7.

18 Aldert Vrij and Shara K. Lochun, “Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Police: Worthwhile or Not?” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology 12, no. 1 (1997).

19 Supra note 1, 30.

20 Supra note 1, 31.

This Article was first published in the F B I Law Enforcement Bulletin - August 2001 Issue

Wednesday, August 26, 2009

More to Love: Episode Five

The four remaining rings went back to Anna, Malissa, Mandy and Tali.

Two of them I picked the very first show to go the distance. I thought it might be nice to look back at what I said about their initial greeting with Luke:

You will see at least one of these people in the final... I am only commenting on their initial connection.

Malissa, He licked his lips when he saw her, he did this because he liked what he saw and subconsciously wanted to feel her touch on his lips... Luke also continued to shake her hand and this shows that he wanted extend physical contact.

Anna, he gave more than his social smile when she emerged from the car. As she was walking up the steps to go into the house, as he was watching her he subtly pursed his lips. Inward pursed lips can be a sign of stress, not wanting to speak, or not liking what they are hearing. In this particular example I believe it was a form of licking his lips, which is a sign of attraction.

Now this is interesting. Last week I mentioned this about Mandy:

Mandy clearly is showing much more emotion than she has this season. Luke is not an emotional guy, but I hear and see some things in this exchange that lead me to believe that Luke has a way to go:

- Luke does not show any emotion when she expresses 'calling a boyfriend' and shows non verbal clues that he is not planning on choosing her (sigh, mouth).
- Luke says, "It is going to get more difficult, not just for me, but for you" is a warning for her. Listen to the his voice. "not just for me" is said softer- it will not be as difficult for him as it will be for her.

She will not be the last one! Mandy will be ring less!

What I saw in this show.

For the first time Luke actually move forward to meet and greet someone, Malissa.

Luke shows a big smile at the lunch, at one point he bites his lower lip- this is a sign he wants to say more but is holding back. This is after he says nice things to Malissa so this is a sign he doesn't want to say more nice things ,but for some reason doesn't want to go on... One thing that is odd, Malissa has a hard time looking Luke in the eyes. When they were on the blanket, she was looking over his shoulder and past him. When Malissa gets back to the house she shows more happiness talking to the girls about their date than the happiness she showed on the actual date- this is a sign of something... it could be she simply wants to win and/or she only likes the idea of a boyfriend...

The seduction move of the episode goes to... Tali
They both are moving slightly to each other, but when she tilts her head it is an invitation for Luke. We do this naturally when we go in for the kiss and partners usually do it at the same time, by doing it sooner it was a big sign saying kiss me. If you really watch the video she actually does it more than once... each time with a little more tilt.

Fast forward to the mixer: Tali speaks to him unexpectedly outside. Later when he was sitting on the couch he states what happened tonight makes it all the more tougher for him. Tali played her cards right on the beach and in the garden, she was going to go home tonight but Luke cannot outright lie to her, because in the garden he reassures her to follow her heart and not to listen to the other girls in the house...

Going out on a limb, I'm sticking with the ones he initially saw something in- in the first greeting- either Anna or Malissa will walk away with a ring. I'd tell you who, but it would spoil it for you...◦

Nonverbal Signs of Terrorists and Sucide Bombers

Passengers search at military inspection checkpoint in Afghanistan

Aug 19 2009
An Afghan national policeman and a U.S. Army Soldier search a vehicle and its passengers at an inspection checkpoint near Forward Operating Base Joyce, Konar province, Afghanistan on August 11, 2009. Afghan national security forces and U.S. Army Soldiers are working together to provide increased security ahead of the Afghan presidential elections set for August 20. UPI/Andrew Smith/U.S. Army Photo via Newscom

Spec. Edward Zaluski, 31, of Boca Raton, says in an interview and article in the Palm Beach Post, "trying to understand who is friendly to Americans and who isn't is tricky and crucial. The fact that the soldiers must work through interpreters who translate any of four languages — Pashto, Farsi, Arabic, or Dari, also known as Zoroastrian — makes it even trickier."

"Everything in that culture is nuances, undertones, everything is subtle," he says. "Things we don't really think much about, like hand movements and body language. You have to watch everything, every little gesture.

"As military police, that's something we were trained for, to read body language. You have to constantly be on your toes. Try and get inside their heads and understand how they're thinking."

It is important to recognise the nonverbal tells of someone willing to die to kill you. Some of these may be present:

- Intensity in the Eyes.
- Gaze aversion until they reach their destination.
- Sweat on their upper lip and/or forehead.
- Wearing loose fitting, clean clothes.
- Will not walk slow, but will walk as fast as possible without being noticeable.
- Will not be looking around, or if they do it will be somewhat quick nervous glances- looking for authority figures or escape routes.
- Tight lips.
- Wide open folds of the upper and lower eye folds- they will want to take in every detail of their last minutes.
- Will lack animated facial expressions, their facial expression will be consistent which is not normal. Statute.
- Serious lack of gestures, unnatural hand movements- it is possible their hands will be balled up in fists- if one hand is in a pocket and the other is not (and you see other intensity signs) you are in immediate danger- one hand in a pocket is reserved for meandering.

If your job is to man a checkpoint or provide security against these types of people, the best advice I can give you- is to very quickly establish a behavior baseline of the people passing through your checkpoint.

Place them in their respective roles (There will be the inconvenienced, the non supporter, the meek, the strong, the challenger, etc.) and look for subtle clues of deviation for this baseline.

This is what the Secret Service detail who guards the President does- they are looking for the one person in the crowd who is not exhibiting normal behavior. While the Secret Service has a tough job, it is not as tough as your job because you have many more different types of people who you will come into contact with than the Secret Service (when guarding the President in the US).

The second piece of advice I can give to you is learn about body language (and cultural differences) and study people and how they act, gesture, and interact with others. Video tape interactions at your checkpoint and study them, often times after you've seen the same piece of video, something with startlingly jump out at you. Teach the new guy that will back you up about this topic. Dedicate time to the studying of people until it becomes second nature to you. TRUST YOUR INSTINCTS AND DO NOT DISCOUNT EVEN THE SMALLEST THING.◦

Touch Communicates Distinct Emotions

Hand touching wrist

I have been spending a great deal of time thinking about touch and how it can and does have a bearing on our emotions. My thoughts are more philosophy orientated than scientific- and then the two were merged- when I saw this journal article.

The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation.

To read more please visit the Touch and Emotion Lab.

The specific types of touch that were coded included squeezing, stroking, rubbing, pushing, pulling, pressing, patting, tapping, shaking, pinching, trembling, poking, hitting, scratching, massaging, tickling, slapping, lifting, picking, finger interlocking, swinging, and tossing.

The emotions were anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, sympathy,
embarrassment, love, envy, pride, and gratitude.

Humans can communicate several distinct emotions through touch, and they did so with distinct methods. Important when evaluation the interactions of others.◦

Tuesday, August 25, 2009



Aug 24 2009

What we see here is a more personal hand shake than the typical businessman's hand shake. By placing the free hand on the shoulder it is somewhere between a handshake and a full hug.

Other variations include placing the free hand on the other's forearm or enclosing the other person's hand in a sort of hand hug- these all are taking the handshake to a different level of intimacy.◦

Eric Holder Speaks On Gang Violence And Crime At White...

Eric Holder Speaks On Gang Violence And Crime At White House Conference

WASHINGTON - AUGUST 24: U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder (R) pauses while delivering one of the keynote addresses during the White House National Conference on Gang Violence Prevention and Crime Control August 24, 2009 in Washington, DC. Holder outlined five points of crime prevention during the conference, which brought mayors, police chiefs and others to the White House. (Photo by Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

When someone holds a finger to his temple or the side of their forehead it is a sign that they are thinking. Here we see the Attorney General look down and close his eyes, along with his finger is a clear example of someone attempting to remember something- to access his memory.◦

Good Presentations: Voice

Good Presentations: Voice -- powered by◦

Monday, August 24, 2009

An Alternative to Finger Pointing

Obama Attends Forum For Supporters Of National Health Care Reform

Aug 20 2009
U.S. President Barack Obama speaks during a town hall meeting on healthcare at the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee August 20, 2009 in Washington. UPI/Alex Wong/Pool Photo via Newscom

Finger pointing is a negative gesture that most consider rude and inappropriate, here President Obama has replaced the finger pointing gesture with this effective gesture that creates emotion- without the negativity. Also, showing your thumb(s) upward is also a sign of high confidence.

When Abuse Turns to Murder: Nonverbal Clues

Young couple fighting

First, if you are in an abusive relationship please take your situation seriously. One of the worst lies, are the lies we tell ourselves that are based on hope; especially if the hope is based on someone else's actions.

99% of all spousal/relationship murders there is a documented history of abuse; it is a rarity to have the spur of the moment passion murder.

What you need to look for is a change in the abuser's behavior.

Possible changes include aloofness, distracted, depressed, distancing from yourself and other family members, and/or more quiet.

Other things to look for are eye aversion, agitation, and/or not accepting touch from others.

If the change in behavior is noticed in conjunction with other major life changes/stress (pregnancy, job loss, new living situation, family issues, etc) there is a much higher risk of danger.

The above signs have been seen over and over again, unfortunately always after it is too late.

If you are a police officer it is important to understand this and convey this as a warning to the victims of abuse as you respond to these type of calls (which are an all too common call for the night shift) it could mean the difference between life and death, and could give the victim a clearer perspective of the future risks, so action is taken sooner rather than later.◦

Sunday, August 23, 2009

Special Note

We've changed our url; your old bookmarks should work and you should be automatically redirected to the new url.

We've taken the search functionality down until our site is once again indexed by Google.

If this change causes you problem(s), please accept our apologies and drop us a quick note so we can lessen the impact to you and others, if at all possible.◦

Statement Analysis: What Do Suspects' Words Really Reveal?

Analysis: What Do Suspects' Words Really Reveal?
By Susan H. Adams, M.A.

Special Agent Adams teaches statement analysis as part of interviewing and interrogation courses at the FBI Academy.

Susan Smith stood outside her burgundy sedan and released the parking brake. The car plunged down the ramp into South Carolina's Long Lake, with her sons, Michael, 3, and Alexander, 14 months, strapped into their car seats. To cover her actions, Susan told police that the boys were abducted at gunpoint, launching a nationwide search for the victims and their abductor. During the investigation, Susan tearfully told reporters, "My children wanted me. They needed me. And now I can't help them."1

Yet, the boys' father, David, who believed Susan's story, tried to reassure her by saying: "They're okay. They're going to be home soon."2

Police subsequently arrested Susan for the murder of her children. She was tried and convicted and is currently serving a life sentence in a South Carolina correctional institution. Many investigators use a technique called "statement analysis" to discern the truth in statements like the ones given by Susan and David Smith. In statement analysis, investigators examine words, independent of case facts, to detect deception. They also remain alert for information omitted and question why the suspect may have done so. Investigators then analyze the clues unintentionally provided by a suspect and use this insight during the subsequent interview.

In the case of Susan Smith, by analyzing the statements made by the victims' parents, one could conclude that the father believed the boys were alive and the mother knew the children were dead. The key to this deduction lies in simple English grammar, specifically, verb tense. The father referred to the children in the present tense; the mother used the past tense. Of all times, when the "abducted" children really would need their mother, she speaks of them in the past tense, e.g., "They needed me." The children could no longer want or need her because they were no longer alive.

This article gives a brief overview of statement analysis. It examines four components of statement analysis--parts of speech (pronouns, nouns, and verbs), extraneous information, lack of conviction, and the balance of the statement. A word of caution is warranted here. There is much more to statement analysis than what is provided in this article; space limitations preclude incorporating other statement analysis components, such as the remaining parts of speech and the numerous indicators of missing information. Still, armed with the information presented in this article, investigators will be able to use these basic techniques to gain insight into a suspect prior to conducting an interview. By learning more about a suspect and determining whether that person is being deceptive, they have a much better chance of identifying the guilty party and gaining a confession.

The Technique
Statement analysis follows a two-step process. First, investigators determine what is typical of a truthful statement, referred to as the norm. They then look for any deviation from this norm. Truthful statements differ from fabricated ones in both content and quality.3

Although spoken words can be analyzed, investigators inexperienced in statement analysis will find it easier to begin by examining written statements. Investigators can make transcripts of oral statements. Or, even better, they can have suspects write a statement that details what they did from the time they woke up until the time they went to bed. This account provides a totally untainted version of the day's events and increases the validity of the analysis. Statement analysis is an aid that can be used to obtain a confession; it is not an end in itself. Therefore, whenever possible, investigators should analyze the statement before interviewing the suspect.

Important Parts Of Speech
Parts of speech form the foundation of statement analysis. To analyze a statement, investigators first need to examine the individual parts of speech, particularly pronouns, nouns, and verbs, and to establish the norm for each. If a deviation from the norm appears, they then should ask, "Why?"

Pronouns are parts of speech that take the place of nouns. Common examples of personal pronouns include I, me, you, he, she, we, they, and it. In statement analysis, particular attention should be given to the personal pronouns "I" and "we" and all possessive pronouns, such as my, our, your, his, her, etc. The Pronoun "I" Investigators have noted that truthful people give statements using the pronoun "I," which is first person, singular. Any deviation from this norm deserves close scrutiny, for it could be an indication that the person is not totally committed to the facts in the statement and, therefore, is not telling the whole truth.

The following written narrative begins with a clear commitment, then shows a definite lack of commitment:

"I got up at 7:00 when my alarm went off. I took a shower and got dressed. I decided to go out for breakfast. I went to the McDonald's on the corner. Met a man who lives nearby. Talked with him for a few minutes. I finished breakfast and drove to work."

The first four sentences of the statement match the norm of first person, singular--the use of the pronoun "I"; the next two sentences show deviation, because this pronoun is missing from the statement. What caused the writer to stop using the pronoun "I"? Any change in the use of pronouns is significant, and at this point, investigators should realize that the statement now becomes devoid of personal involvement. Could there be tension between the writer and the man mentioned in the statement? During the interview, investigators should draw out specifics about this relationship to determine if this part of the narrative is really true or if the writer omitted information.

I versus We
Because using the first person, singular pronoun is the norm for truthful statements, investigators need to look for a lack of the pronoun "I" and overuse of the pronoun "we," which is first person, plural.

The following version of a teen-ager's account when asked to relate what he did on Saturday evening illustrates the norm:

"I met four friends at the movie theater, watched a movie, then stopped to get something to eat with them. We had a few drinks at the bar on the way home. I stayed until just after midnight. I drove home...."

The following version of the same account, when contrasted with the above statement, indicates deviation from the norm:

"We all met at the movie theater, watched a movie, then stopped to get something to eat. We had a few drinks at the bar on the way home. We stayed until just after midnight. We each drove home...."

Because the second statement contains only "we," instead of the expected norm, which uses mostly "I," the investigator should wonder why there is no individual involvement. Perhaps the teenager hopes to conceal something or at least to avoid sole responsibility for some act.

The Pronoun "We"
In speech and the written word, linguists consider the shortest way to say something as the easiest and clearest way to communicate. The pronoun "we" is a short, clear way to describe one's self and others after proper introductions have been made. "We" also denotes togetherness; it indicates a relationship between persons. Omission of the pronoun "we" is significant, particularly when the individuals are spouses.

In the following versions of an account of events given by a husband, the first statement indicates the norm; the second one denotes deviation:

"My wife and I were invited to a neighbor's 50th birthday party. We arrived at the party a little late. The party was still in full swing when we left for home."

"My wife and I were invited to a neighbor's 50th birthday party. My wife and I arrived at the party a little late. The party was still in full swing when my wife and I left for home."

The second statement reveals distance between the husband and his wife. Once the husband introduces his wife into the statement, using the pronoun "we" is the shortest way to communicate. Yet, the husband avoids this word. Why? Perhaps because there is no "togetherness" in the relationship. If later that night the wife is murdered, and the husband, when recounting the day's activities, provides a statement devoid of the pronoun "we," investigators questioning the husband should focus on the couple's relationship. If the husband admits to marital problems, but vehemently denies any involvement in the death, investigators may clear him as a suspect, barring contrary evidence. However, if the husband responds that the couple was very close, investigators should be wary, because statement analysis reveals otherwise. A shift from "they" to "we" also is significant, for it reveals personal involvement.

In white-collar crime cases, the guilty person who denies complicity may find it difficult to keep the pronoun "we" out of a statement completely. In such instances, investigators need to search the entire written statement for "we." Then, during the interview, they should focus on the transaction described with "we." This pronoun indicates that the writer was involved.

Another example of this shift in the use of pronouns often can be found in alleged rape reports.

In the following two statements taken from rape reports, the focus is on the pronoun "we":

"He forced me into the woods," versus "We went into the woods."

The first statement represents the norm. The second statement, which contains
the pronoun "we," is a deviation from the norm. Veteran rape investigators are alert to the sudden appearance of the pronoun "we" in a victim's statement. From their experience interviewing rape victims, they have normed the rape victim to use the pronouns "he" and "I," not the pronoun "we," to describe the assailant and herself. Because the pronoun "we" denotes togetherness, the investigator reading "we" in an alleged rape statement should ask if the victim knew the assailant and if they were together before the rape occurred. If the victim denies this, there is reason to believe the statement is a fabrication.

In reports of an abduction, the use of the pronoun "we" also can indicate that the victim may not be telling the whole truth.

For example, a young woman who reported that she had been abducted at a shopping center provided the following written statement:

"I parked and started getting out of my car when a white male about 200 pounds, 6 feet tall approached me and told me to get in the car or he would hurt me. He then got in the back. I got in the front and began to drive. He told me to drive west on the highway. He asked me if I had any money. I told him no. We drove for about an hour. During that hour, he hit me repeatedly on the right side of my face. When we got to the exit, I told him I had no gas. He got mad and told me to get off the exit. We went straight off the exit for about 4-5 miles. He told me to turn down the first street on my left. We went down it about 1/4 of a mile. He told me to stop. He opened the door, put both feet out, hit me, and took off walking quickly. He took off to the east of where I was parked. After that, I took off and lost sight of him."

Investigators experienced in statement analysis would question the truthfulness of the above declaration. A true abduction statement, when normed, includes phrases like "He forced me to drive..." or "He made me get off at the exit...." Traumatized victims who are telling the truth do not use the pronoun "we" to describe assailants and themselves. Investigators concluded that the above statement revealed deception. When interviewed, the woman subsequently confessed that no abduction occurred. She was, in fact, with a man she knew.

Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns, e.g., my, our, your, his, her, and their, reveal the attachment that the writer or speaker acknowledges toward a person or object. A suspect will change the pronoun, or drop the pronoun completely, when opting not to show possession or admit association with a particular object or person. For example, "I was cleaning my gun. I was putting my gun away. The gun discharged." This person, wanting to disclaim ownership of the gun that discharged (either accidentally or intentionally), stopped using the possessive pronoun "my." It no longer was his gun, under his control; it became the gun.

Another example can be found in a written statement made by a person whose home burned to the ground:

"I left my house right after breakfast to join my friends at the track for the day.... I drove back to my house, made a few phone calls, then went out to dinner with Stan Thompson.... Stan dropped me off at my house around 10:00. After I changed my clothes I left the house to spend the night at my cousin Tom's. Around midnight we heard fire engines and got up to see what was going on."

In this account, after the writer consistently used the pronoun "my" to describe his house, he omitted the pronoun the last time it was mentioned. Was it because the house burned down, and it was no longer his house? If so, then this change should have occurred much later, after midnight, when the writer learned that the house was burning. Based on the statements made, investigators should question why the switch in references occurred the last time the writer was in the house. Was it because the writer had spread accelerant on the floor of the house? Was the writer already giving up possession because he had set the fire? Just as arson investigators try to discover if valuable possessions have been removed from a house prior to a fire, those skilled in statement analysis look for the exact point at which the owner stops taking possession by failing to use the pronoun "my."

Nouns denote persons, places, and things. Yet, nouns take on different meanings, depending on the individual. When examining the words used by a suspect, the investigator needs to note any changes, because a "change of language reflects a change in reality."4

If suspects substitute a different word after using one word consistently, they telegraph the fact that something in their lives has changed. Although language changes can occur with any part of speech, they are observed more frequently with nouns.

In a statement written by a suspect in a homicide investigation, a significant change in noun usage occurred. A young man shot his wife in the face with a shotgun. The woman died instantly, and the husband claimed the shooting was accidental. Investigators asked the man to write a statement of the events that occurred during the day of the shooting. The husband wrote a detailed statement, using the noun "wife" seven times to refer to his wife.

He then wrote: "...I lost control of the gun. I sensed that the barrel was pointing in Louise's direction and I reacted by grabbing at the gun to get it back under control. When I did this the gun discharged. It went off once and I looked over and saw blood on Louise's face."

What caused the husband to start using "Louise," his wife's first name? Did this occur at a significant point in the narrative? Prior to this point, investigators had normed the husband as using the noun "wife." When the spouse went to church with her husband, she was "my wife." When she later called to her husband, she was "my wife." But when the barrel of the gun was pointing in her direction and when there was blood on her face, two critial points in the statement, the spouse was no longer referred to as "my wife." She became Louise.

Investigators have determined that perpetrators find it nearly impossible to admit to harming a family member. The husband in this case could not admit that he had killed his wife. He removed the family relationship by substituting the name "Louise." The husband also failed to introduce Louise to the reader. After using the noun "wife" seven times, the name "Louise" suddenly appears. The reader does not know for certain who Louise is. It only can be assumed that Louise is the wife, but the husband gave no proper introduction, such as "my wife, Louise." The norm for healthy relationships is a proper, clear introduction. But in tumultuous relationships, introductions often are confusing or missing completely. The lack of a proper introduction most likely indicates a poor relationship between the husband and his wife.

Knowledge of this prior to the interview could assist investigators in uncovering the truth. Verbs Verbs express action, either in the past, present, or future. In statement analysis, the tense of the verb is of utmost importance. When analyzing statements, investigators need to concentrate on the tense of the verbs used. In a truthful statement, the use of the past tense is the norm, because by the time a person relates the event, it has already occurred.

For example, the following statement typifies the norm:

"It happened Saturday night. I went out on my back deck to water the plants. It was almost dark. A man ran out of the bushes. He came onto the deck, grabbed me and knocked me down."

The next statement shows deviation from the norm:

"It happened Saturday night. I went out on my back deck to water the plants. It was almost dark. A man runs out of the bushes. He comes onto the deck, grabs me and knocks me down."

The shift to present tense is significant, because events recalled from memory should be stated by using the past tense. The change to present tense could indicate deception. Knowing this, an investigator interviewing the victim of the second statement is forewarned that the account may be fabricated.

The use of past or present tense also is significant when referring to missing persons. In such cases, the norm is to describe the person in the present tense, as in, "I just pray that Jenny is all right." When children are missing, in the parents' hearts and minds, the children remain alive, sometimes long after the point of reason. As evidenced in the Susan Smith case, use of past tense almost immediately after the alleged abduction showed a significant deviation from the norm.

Extraneous Information
Extraneous information in a statement also can provide clues to deception. A truthful person with nothing to hide, when asked the question, "What happened," will recount the events chronologically and concisely. Any information given that does not answer this question is extraneous. People involved in crimes may feel the need to justify their actions. In such cases, the information in the statements will not follow a logical time frame or will skirt what really happened. They also may include more information than is necessary to tell the story. In such instances, investigators should scrutinize this extraneous information and question why this person felt the need to include it.

For example, in a homicide investigation involving a young woman shot by her husband, the husband told police officers that he was cleaning his gun when it accidentally discharged. Investigators then asked the husband to write a statement about his actions on the day he shot his wife. He provided a detailed statement, writing at length about the rust on his gun and a previous hunting trip. He failed, however, to describe fully his activities on this specific day. The amount of extraneous information prompted the investigator to view the husband as a suspect.

Lack Of Conviction
Another important factor in statement analysis is a person's lack of conviction. When analyzing a statement, investigators should note if the person feigns a loss of memory by repeatedly inserting "I don't remember" or "I can't recall." They also should look to see if the person hedges during the narrative by using such phrases as "I think," "I believe," "to the best of my knowledge," or "kind of." These phrases, also called qualifiers, serve to temper the action about to be described, thereby discounting the message before it even is transmitted.5

Clearly, the person giving the statement is avoiding commitment, and warning bells should ring in the investigator's ears. The following is a transcript of an oral statement of a college student who reported that a man broke into her apartment at 3:30 a.m. and raped her. A statement regarding such a traumatic experience should brim with conviction, which this statement clearly lacks.

"He grabbed me and held a knife to my throat. And when I woke up and I was, I mean I was really asleep and I didn't know what was going on, and I kind of you know I was scared and I kind of startled when I woke up, You know, You know I was startled and he, he told, he kept telling me to shut up and he asked me if I could feel the knife."

It is important to consider the phrase, "I kind of startled when I woke up." Certainly, this is not a normal reaction for a woman who awakens in the middle of the night to see an unknown man at her bed and to feel a knife at her throat. The word "terrified" more appropriately comes to mind. Using the words "kind of startled" shows a gross deviation from the expected normal reaction of terror.

Another example of lack of conviction can be found in a written statement given by a relative of a woman who mysteriously disappeared. Investigators asked the missing woman's sister-in-law to recount the activities that took place on the weekend of the disappearance. After claiming memory lapses and showing a general lack of specificity, the sister-in-law ended her statement with: "...that was about it. These were my actions on the weekend to the best I can recall." Any investigator reading the above statement should seriously question whether the events were described accurately and completely.

Balance Of The Statement
A statement given by a suspect or an alleged victim should be examined by investigators for overall balance. Statements should be more than just a series of details. They need to sound like an account of the event. A truthful statement has three parts. The first part details what was going on before the event occurred; it places the event in context. The second part describes the occurrence itself, i.e., what happened during the theft, the rape, the fire, etc. The last part tells what occurred after the event, including actions and emotions, and should be at least as long as the first part. The more balanced the three parts of the statement, the greater the probability that the statement is true.6

A statement containing the same number of lines in the before, during, and after parts, i.e., 33 1/3 percent in each part, indi-cates truth, although some degree of variation from perfect balance can be expected. If any part of a statement is incomplete or missing altogether, then the statement is probably false.

The following breakdown of a statement written by a man whose home burned shows a deviation too great from the balanced norm. The man provided a 56-line account of what happened that day, divided as follows:

BEFORE the fire: 33 lines -59.0%
DURING the fire: 16 lines - 28.5%
AFTER the fire: 7 lines - 12.5%
Investigators concluded that the above distribution indicates deception, because the three parts of the statement are clearly out of balance. The "before" section is too long and the "after" section is too short. Examination of the statement revealed that in the first part, the writer provided too much information totally unrelated to the fire. This signaled the investigators to ask themselves, "Is the writer stalling or trying to justify his actions?" Also, the statement contained sparse information on what happened after the fire and lacked any indication of emotion. There was no sign of anger, shock, or sense of loss. The writer, who showed no concern about the consequences of the fire, ultimately confessed to setting it.

Statements contain a wealth of information far beyond what the suspect or alleged victim intends to communicate. Fortunately, investigators can use this information to their benefit. Statement analysis provides investigators with vital background data and details about relationships to explore during the interview process. It also can determine whether the intent of the statement is to convey or to convince, that is, to convey the truth or to convince through deception.7 Armed with this knowledge, investigators can enter the interview room with increased confidence to identify the perpetrator and gain a confession.

The Washington Post, November 5, 1994, A15.
The Washington Post, July 26, 1995, A7.
Udo Undeutsch published this hypothesis in German in 1967. It also was reported in "The Development of Statement Reality Analysis," Credibility Assessment, ed. John C. Yuille (The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, NATO ASI Series, 1989). The Germans generally are credited with the advancement of statement analysis for investigative purposes. German psychologists devised a system to assess the credibility of statements made by children in child abuse cases. Called criteria-based content analysis, the technique became mandated in German courts in 1954 in cases involving a disputed allegation of sexual abuse of a child.

Avinoam Sapir, Scientific Content Analysis (SCAN) (Phoenix, AZ: Laboratory of Scientific Interrogation, 1987), 52.

Walter Weintrab, Verbal Behavior in Everyday Life (New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co., 1989), 13.

Don Rabon, Investigative Discourse Analysis (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1994), 17.
Ibid., 35.

This Article Originally Appeared in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 1996. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is a great source of information concerning interviewing and interrogations and previous issues are online at

Friday, August 21, 2009

Micheal Jackson's Voice and Those Around Him

What I find most interesting is: a large number of people associated with Micheal Jackson take on many of Michael's vocal characteristics.

Michael would consistently speak in a soft voice; would speak without "normal" space between words, the words would run together like he was almost humming; would have the pentameter and cadence of music and used little reflection on individual words; would speak with a slightly higher than normal tone.

His Chef

His Doctor

They attempt to mirror Michael's voice to show a certain amount of closeness that they once shared with Michael.

The problem is Michael's voice traits and characteristics were largely manufactured and altered consciously; and this in itself is a form of deceit.

When someone consciously changes the pitch and tone of their voice they are distancing themselves from what they are saying.◦

Palm Ready and Honesty

Palm of mans hand

Although there probably are not scientific studies that support this finding, you might find it interesting.

From his book, Palm Reading for Beginners: Find Your Future in the Palm of Your Hand, Richard Webster says this of the pinkie finger, "It is important for this finger to be straight, since this is a sign of honesty. When it is bent or twisted, it shows that the person is potentially dishonest. A man who used to work at our local post office had a twisted little finger. I quickly discovered that I had to check my change after dealing with him, since it was never correct. Whenever I see a twisted little finger on someone’s hand, I stress the necessity of being careful and honest in all business dealings."◦

Arctic Sea alleged hijackers taken to Lefortovo prison...

Arctic Sea alleged hijackers taken to Lefortovo prison for questioning

MOSCOW, RUSSIA. AUGUST 21, 2009. A man suspected of hijacking the Arctic Sea freighter was brought to the Lefortovo prison for questioning. (Photo ITAR-TASS / Andrei Stenin) Photo via Newscom

Arctic Sea alleged hijackers taken to Lefortovo prison for questioning

Hands in pockets equals I do not want to talk.◦

Thursday, August 20, 2009

Subtle Expression of Surprise

Students Throughout The UK Receive Their A Level Results

BATH, UNITED KINGDOM - AUGUST 20: Kay Durham from Hayesfield Sixth Form reacts as she opens her A-level at Hayesfield Girls School on August 20, 2009 in Bath, United Kingdom. Results published today for more than 310,000 students across England, Wales and Northern Ireland showed that a quarter of A-levels were graded an A as students across the UK celebrated another year of record results. (Photo by Matt Cardy/Getty Images)

This is considered the SUBTLE expression of surprise because only the mouth and forehead is showing the expression of surprise. For it to be full surprise the eyes would be open wide- to be able to see everything.◦

Body Language Expert - Carol Kinsey Goman Talks about Her Book


Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Is Michael Vick Remorseful?


I have seen this behavior countless times. If the person first feels and shows remorse for their actions when they are caught, they are not remorseful, they are instead simply sorry for being caught and are more concerned with their punishment and start playing the role that they believe will have the least amount of consequences for themselves. You can easily see this is the case, the remorse started when the jail door was shut.

He also spends a great deal of time and is focused when explaining how it is possible that dog fighting was the norm given his background and experiences. He is playing both sides of the same fence.

With all that being said, I have been asked if he should be able to play football. I believe that he has paid his debt and anyone who is released from prison has the right to earn a living... I believe the moral clauses that govern professional sports, college and universities, and are scattered across corporate America are used to protect the organization from negative publicity, politics, and public opinion and they are rarely fairly enforced across all situations.

More to Love: Episode Four

Melissa and Lauren are sent home.

Wow are the producers/editors reading my blog?!?!? My techie is telling me there are a larger number of people from LA hitting the site. A larger part of my work is becoming consulting in the entertainment business so no biggie. I told him I didn't care and don't do the ip look up thingy...

Last week I made some big statements,

"They will be gone and they know it, Kristian and Danielle." I guess you can have a ring and still be gone, where was Kristian in this episode? Her minutes drastically cut!


"Where does Luke stand in all this? A big cardboard cutout could stand in for him." This week we see him emerge (slightly).

Onto the non verbals of this episode:

Good Wife/Bad Wife

Perhaps this clip will make it into some of my training materials. We have so much emotion. Role playing. Pacifying behavior. Subtle surprise. Truth. Head tilts. Shoulder shrugs. Eye movement. Non asymmetrical mouth positions. Sadness. Happiness and True smiles. Pursed lips. Eye direction clues. One shoulder shrug. Head tilts. Hand pointing. Social smiles. Nods. Anger. Face touching. Perverse pleasure at the expense of others pain. Watch and learn from this five minute clip showing more nonverbal and body language clues that I have ever seen in any reality TV show!

Last week I mentioned, "Look at the greetings, it will be the best indication of the relationship. Excitement seen here is important."

Who wins?

Melissa's Greeting

Heather's Greeting

More Thoughts

Mandy clearly is showing much more emotion than she has this season. Luke is not an emotional guy, but I hear and see some things in this exchange that lead me to believe that Luke has a way to go:

- Luke does not show any emotion when she expresses 'calling a boyfriend' and shows non verbal clues that he is not planning on choosing her (sigh, mouth).
- Luke says, "It is going to get more difficult, not just for me, but for you" is a warning for her. Listen to the his voice. "not just for me" is said softer- it will not be as difficult for him as it will be for her.


Michael Jackson's Doctor Speaks- Statement Analysis

One minute video: 10 seconds concerning the allegations.

"I have done all I could do. I told the truth and I have faith the truth will prevail. God bless you and thank you,"

In statement analysis, this is a classic case of telling the truth that only implies that he has done nothing wrong.

When statement analysis was first developed by Avinoam Sapir he examined initial statements of people who later confessed. What he found was in the initial statement(s) what they said, was not an untruth.

Looking into the linguistic behavior used by the doctor we see he is not not telling an untruth.

I have done all I could do. -Yes this is true and there is nothing else that can be done at this point.

I told the truth and I have faith the truth will prevail. -Yes this is true regardless of guilt of innocence, the truth will prevail.

If he had done nothing wrong wouldn't a more appropriate response be along the lines of:

"I have done nothing wrong."

"I did not administer drugs that were harmful to.."

"I did not prescribe drugs that were harmful to.."

"I was unaware of other doctor's prescriptions"

"I didn't do it"

Beyond the statement analysis, there are other nonverbal clues throughout the video.◦

True Emotion: 2nd Brigade Combat Team Soldiers Return To Ft. Carson...

2nd Brigade Combat Team Soldiers Return To Ft. Carson After 1 Year In Iraq

FORT CARSON, CO - AUGUST 18: Sherie Whiteside watches as her grandson Spc. Travis Loomis and fellow U.S. Army soldiers arrive on August 18, 2009 to Fort Carson, Colorado. Her son and Travis' father Greg Loomis was killed while working as contracter in Iraq just over a year before. Approximately 575 soldiers from the 2nd Brigade Combat team from the 4th Infantry Division returned Tuesday following a 12 month deployment to Iraq. (Photo by John Moore/Getty Images)

Hand unconsciously placed over the heart signifies true emotional feelings of love, warmth, and/or caring- all depending on the situation.

Mouth blocking is done when we do not want to do something (such as show our amusement at the expense of others, show surprise or fear, talk, scream or shout out, or laughing in older people) in this case it is much more... it is to hold all emotion back.

This is one of the rare photographs where (subtle expression training is all important in spotting this) where the eyes are showing sadness and the mouth is showing happiness.

It is rare to express emotions on opposite ends of the continuum, at the same time.

Good Presentations: Gestures

Good Presentations: Gestures -- powered by◦

Professor Ken Adler Thoughts on Political Leaders and Honesty

In a Science Channel show, "The Truth About Liars" Professor Ken Adler thoughts on lies, corruption, suspicion, and honesty. Do American citizens put a very high expectation on honesty from our political leaders? Professor Ken Adler thoughts.

Professor Ken Adler